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While most eyes in the statewide fracking debate are on the Marcellus Shale region in Western Maryland, a smaller gas basin underneath Southern Maryland is drawing a Texas-based energy company’s attention.

The Shore Exploration and Production Corp. has leased 84,000 acres of land in Virginia in relation to the Taylorsville basin but has not begun drilling.

The basin, though mostly in Virginia, runs in Maryland through most of Charles County and also goes into St. Mary’s, Prince George’s, Calvert and Anne Arundel counties.

Shore Exploration once leased Maryland land with Exxon and Texaco during the late 1980s to study the basin but was unable to use it for extracting natural gas, said Stan Sherrill, Shore’s president.

Energy companies now have stronger technology options, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, which also is called fracking, he said.

However, Shore currently will not lease in Maryland because of Gov. Martin O’Malley’s order that prevents the Maryland Department of the Environment from approving drilling permits until the end of a scientific study examining fracking.

“Until they’re willing to change their moratorium, it’s a moot question,” Sherrill said.

The study ordered by O’Malley (D) is planned to be finalized later this year.

Jay Apperson, a spokesperson for MDE, said he is unaware of any companies recently leasing mineral rights in Southern Maryland. However, MDE does not get directly involved with leasing. That’s a county-based process, he said.

“We don’t regulate that,” Apperson said. “MDE issues drilling permits. Nine have been issued for the Marcellus Shale” in Western Maryland, he said.

He said current law does bar any drilling for gas or oil in the Chesapeake Bay, its tributaries and in the Critical Area buffer around those waters.

Del. Shane Robinson (D-Montgomery) said a problem with small basins such as Taylorsville is that they have not been as widely publicized as Marcellus and that residents might not be aware that fracking could directly effect them if allowed in Maryland.

“It’s not just a Western Maryland issue,” he said.

Though fracking is not permitted in the state, the Taylorsville basin goes under the Potomac River, which separates Maryland and Virginia.

If a spill occurred on the Virginia side of the Potomac River or another shared body of water, both sides of the water could be effected, said Jim Coleman, a research geologist at the U.S. Geological Survey.

Coleman said he sees the biggest risks in fracking operations like the potential ones in Virginia to be surface-level accidents that happen with fracking chemicals and flowback water.

Factors outside of the gas operation, such as low-weight bridges, also have caused fracking-related accidents in other states, he said.

“To me, the biggest problems in Pennsylvania have been to do with the road infrastructure,” he said.

A 2012 U.S. Geological Survey study estimated that there are more than 1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the Taylorsville basin, a small number compared to the Marcellus Shale basin, which has an estimated 84 trillion cubic feet of gas.

Drew Cobbs, executive director for the Maryland Petroleum Council, said the Taylorsville basin likely will not cause significant economic ripples in the industry because it is so small, and the geology of the much larger Marcellus Shale already has proven to be valuable.

He said a less-explored basin such as Taylorsville is much riskier, and an exploratory drilling can cost $5 million to $8 million a well.

Despite the size difference, the oil and gas industry could take note of smaller basins such as Taylorsville because shale gas is a finite resource, and the Marcellus basin won’t last forever, Robinson said.

Sen. Thomas “Mac” Middleton (D-Charles) said he has not heard concerns from his constituents. If fracking can be done in an environmentally responsible way, he said, it could create economic opportunities in Charles County and significantly increase some property values.

“It brings the issue a lot closer to home,” he said.

Proponents of the practice have said natural gas being produced in the U.S. has led to a smaller trade deficit and created tens of thousands of jobs in the Pennsylvania region.

Dominion’s Cove Point liquefied natural gas terminal in Calvert County is hoping to gain approval for an expansion that would allow it to export liquefied natural gas instead of just importing as it currently is permitted. The project still is awaiting approval from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and several federal and state permitting agencies and has met with resistance from some residents.

Organizations that want an extension of Maryland’s fracking moratorium said an energy company’s interest in the Taylorsville basin shows that fracking is an immediate issue.

“It should be a signal to the Marylanders living in the rest of the Taylorsville basin that this is very real and drilling like this could come to Maryland in the near future,” Mike Tidwell, director of the Chesapeake Climate Action Network, said.

He said fracking’s potential negative effects include contaminated drinking water and increased truck traffic.

While the Shore Exploration and Production Corp. is leasing land in the Virginia part of the Taylorsville basin, the company still does not have a major partner as it previously did with Texaco and Exxon, Sherrill said.

He said the company’s timetable depends on when it can attract partners so that it can begin drilling wells.

Staff writer Jesse Yeatman contributed to this report.